Desch's research found that a mechanism similar to what occurred within Earth may have generated diamonds on Mars, with a magma ocean covering the planet for a few million years. The discovery was made using data from the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM), which is mounted on the Mars Odyssey spacecraft.
On Earth, volcanoes emit gases that condense into liquid rocks called lava flows. If you heat these rocks above 400 degrees Celsius (750 degrees Fahrenheit), they will evaporate any minerals that were not soluble in water, leaving only pure diamond behind. Scientists think that might have happened on Mars too, though it would have required an extremely hot environment. One possibility is that volcanic activity created such high temperatures that they melted rock on Mars, creating a magma ocean that covered the planet for a few million years.
Using data from the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM), scientists were able to identify spectral features of carbon in the atmosphere of Mars that are characteristic of graphite and diamond. This means that there must be some source for making carbon on Mars today. It can't be fossil fuel, because those wouldn't produce carbon atoms left over from when Mars was more geologically active. Instead, it seems most likely that carbon comes from volcanic eruptions or some other form of geological activity.
High pressure tests indicate that diamonds are created from methane on the ice giant planets Uranus and Neptune, although certain planets in other planetary systems may be practically pure diamond. Diamonds are also present in stars and are thought to be the first material to form. The presence of these minerals on other planets or moons is evidence that they arose there naturally, without any help from us Earthlings.
Uranus has more than 23 million miles of surface area made up of water with a small amount of rock and ice mixed in. Although most of the planet is frozen solid, its interior is hot enough for hydrogen to be broken down into two protons and two electrons. This makes it a chemically active body and explains why it supports life as we know it.
The discovery of methane on Uranus was a surprise to scientists because the only other gas known to exist within the planet's atmosphere is carbon dioxide (CO2). Methane is the main component of natural gas and also occurs in smaller quantities in blood, intestinal gases, flatulence, and sewage treatment plants. It is also produced by some bacteria as a by-product of metabolism but only under anaerobic conditions (without oxygen). On Earth, methane is quickly destroyed by heat, light, air, and water so its existence isn't usually detectable unless you look for it.
Diamonds in History We have understood the science of diamond creation since then, yet we continue to associate diamonds with similar ideals. As the Earth cooled from its dramatic cosmic origins as a molten planet, great pressure and heat generated the diamonds that we still mine today.
As our planet matured, so too did the capacity for life to evolve and develop. Plants used the sun's energy to produce their food through photosynthesis, using carbon dioxide and water to create glucose which they stored in their cells in the form of starch or cellulose. They also created oxygen as a by-product of this process. Animals followed a similar strategy but used the energy from the plants to build up their own body mass before moving on when they became satiated. Some animals converted part of their diet into oil or fat which served as a source of energy for them and also made them suitable for storage over time. Others, such as humans, developed ways to collect and use energy from other sources including fire and coal. The increase in oxygen caused air pollution problems for many species, leading to their extinction or changes in range. This is why you often hear about trees being "killed" by pollution - their leaves and tissues are depleted of available oxygen near the surface, causing them to yellow and die.
Oceans cover 70 percent of Earth's surface, but only contain 8 percent of its water.
Although diamonds on Earth are few, extraterrestrial diamonds (diamonds created outside of Earth) are abundant. The methane gas would either be trapped under ice or present within gaseous clouds. As these worlds rotate, their surfaces are exposed to the space between the stars, which has temperatures ranging from 100 to 400 degrees Celsius (212 to 772 degrees Fahrenheit). Over time, these extreme conditions could cause the methane to break down into carbon and hydrogen, forming diamonds. Astronomers have found evidence for methane on several other distant objects using telescopes designed to see far-away objects in the galaxy.
On Earth, diamonds form when sedimentary rocks are subjected to high pressures and temperatures over millions of years. On other planets where methane is trapped under ice or within gaseous clouds, diamonds might be formed similarly under more intense pressures. Although diamonds are common on Earth, they're rarely seen because they usually lie deep beneath surface layers of rock and soil. Only through careful searching can they be found.
In 1990, astronomers discovered a large diamond ring around a star called R Craterae. They estimated that the ring was about 50 miles (80 km) wide and made up of nearly 3 billion dollars' worth of precious stone.
Hello, littlemissstiger. Diamonds, to the best of my understanding, are only made deep below in a rock called kimberlite, which is formed under tremendous heat and pressure to make diamonds. The crystals formed when a volcano erupts are all the result of the cooling of the erupting lava (as well as any magma that does not erupt).
During Earth's early years, before it was covered by water, volcanoes were more common than they are now, but they were also much less active. Then, about 565 million years ago, there was a major increase in volcanic activity, including around 30 large explosions of volcanoes larger than Mount Everest. These events deposited huge amounts of sulfur dioxide into the atmosphere, causing a global catastrophe known as "the great oxygenation event". The more active the volcano, the higher the concentration of sulfur dioxide it will release. Diamonds are formed inside volcanoes when molten rock deep within the earth's surface freezes and turns into stone. As the molten rock cools, it forms bubbles containing gas molecules. The gas molecules can be carbon dioxide or nitrogen gas. If the bubbles form inside a volcano, they are called pyrophyllite bubbles. Otherwise, they are called silica bubbles.
The first diamonds to appear after the great oxygenation event were likely produced by submarine volcanoes that erupted near the surface of the ocean. As the molten rock cooled, it would have contained some sulfuric acid.
Diamonds, on the other hand, may be as ubiquitous as ordinary pebbles on other worlds in the cosmos. According to recent study published in The Planetary Science Journal, planets with high carbon-to-oxygen ratios, known as carbide exoplanets, might produce a substantial amount of diamonds if they also possess water. Such worlds could be more common than we think; many star systems only need a small fraction of their mass in water to support life as we know it.
Carbide exoplanets are defined by having more carbon than oxygen. Carbon is the main component of both organic matter and elemental carbon (soot). Therefore, a high ratio suggests that most of the planet's carbon is in an inert form rather than being part of biological molecules. A high carbon/oxygen ratio is also required to make diamond. Thus, these planets likely have large amounts of carbon locked up in solid forms other than biology.
The study was led by Elizabeth Bailey of the University of Cambridge and funded by NASA's Astrobiology Institute. She and her team used computer models to search for possible habitable worlds outside our solar system. They found that almost half of the stars within 100 light years of Earth have at least one world that could be a home for life as we know it: either because it has all the necessary elements for biology and is not too hot or cold, or because it has no oxygen but lots of carbon and hydrogen.